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The Feasibility of Using

 Cold-Ironing

 


> Shore-Port-to-Ship Power Converters Rotary Frequency Selection


NYK depiction of its cold ironing container

With all the studies conducted, they have found that cold-ironing is feasible. It is most cost effective for container ships, passenger ships and reefers.  These ships account for 56 percent of all the ships' visits to the California ports.  The passenger ships and container ships are both growing dramatically.  Cold-ironing is less feasible for ships with infrequent and irregular visits, especially for ships with lower power needs and shorter berthing times, such as tankers and bulk cargo ships.  The most important reason for using cold-ironing is to reduce the diesel PM, which is where the majority of potential airborne cancer risk exists.

One challenge for using cold ironing is the variable of the electrical requirements on the ships.  Ocean going vessels fall into two categories, low-voltage and high-voltage. Except for passenger ships, high voltage is nominally 6.6kV and low-voltage is around 440V.  For passenger ships, high voltage is 11.0V, while low-voltage is 6.6V. This challenge can be overcome by using a shore-port-to-ship power converter. These converters are used to convert frequencies, voltages and phases. Shore-port-to-ship power converters should also offer line isolation, harmonic cancellation and power factor correction. One of the questions asked, "Should the port or ship have the converter?"  At this point, most of the ships have been retrofitted to handle this problem.  The worse problem the ships have is finding the space to put the converter.  Most new vessels are already designed to accommodate a converter, but some older ships do not have the space to do this.

Hooking up to Shore-Power

In this report, we have taken the estimated cost to retrofit a ship based on the information available from the China Shipping Project, Princess Cruises, and NYK Container-Ship reports.  According to Princess Cruises, the cold-ironing project cost an average of around $500,000 per ship.  This cost includes the electrical equipment necessary to synchronize the ship's electrical system with the shore system, which eliminates any interruption of power on the ship.  NYK construction cost for the equipment is estimated at around $830,000. To retrofit a ship, the estimated cost is between $200,000 to $574,0000.

Shore-side costs vary from site to site and can vary widely.  The largest cost is usually the modifications of the existing electrical equipment to handle the additional power to specific terminals. The cost depends on the availability and proximity of adequate electrical power and varies from port to port.

Energy costs will be cheaper by utilizing cold-ironing.  Due to world events and high demand for petroleum products, the cost of fuel has gone up considerably.  Another factor is the cost of using union electricians to both connect and disconnect electrical power for these ships.  Even with all these costs, the long-term savings and benefits of improving our air and cutting down on air pollutants far out weights the expense.

Ports all over the world are looking at using shore power and are starting to offer terminals with shore-port-to-ship power capabilities.  Cruise ships are now setting up all their vessels for shore power.  In addition, China has set up their large container ships to use shore power.  The Navy has used this method for years.  This will be the wave of the future as nations around the world realize we need to protect our environment for future generations.

As this method becomes global, there will be the increase in the use of shore-port-to-ship power converters.  Because each port will have different frequencies and voltages, a converter becomes an economical solution.  A TEMCo Shore-Port-to-Ship Power Converter is a unique frequency converter that performs multiple functions.  It provides the possibility to connect to any shore power connection anywhere in the world ranging from 25 kVA to over 400 kVA.  Supplying power is only half of what this converter does, it also stabilizes and offers power factor correction.

About TEMCo
TEMCo has many years of experience.  They manufacture and develop industrial power solutions and are dedicated to using the highest quality materials.  TEMCo has a staff of highly trained engineers that can design your equipment to meet any of your application requirements, and they provide the latest and best technology the industry has to offer.
 

TEMCo has had extensive experience manufacturing electrical power products since 1968.


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